Tuesday, April 16, 2019

The problem solution of rmg Essay Example for Free

The problem solution of rmg EssaySubmitted to Institute of Governance Studies BRAC University capital of Bangladesh In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in Governance and developing (MAGD) Institute of Governance Studies BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh November 2010 Declaration I hereby declargon that I am the sole in reboundant of this thesis. I authorize the Institute of Governance Studies (IGS) and BRAC University to l windup this thesis to other Institutions or individuals for the purpose of profound research b bely. I further authorize the IGS and BRAC University to reproduce this thesis by photocopying or by othermeans, in conglomeration or in part, at the request of other institutions for the purpose of scholarly research. Urmi Tamanna ID-07272026 MAGD Batch-2 IGS, BRAC University i Acknowledgement All praise and gratitude to Allah (The alone we worship, the alone we ask for Help). This is matter of ch bothenge and enjoyment to do a research work in a defendive academic environment like IGS and BRAC University. Firstly, I would like to express my sincere respect to my supervisor Professor Iftekhar Ghani Chowdhury for his valuable guidance and unpar all(prenominal)el support which makes me confident to work on this challenging issue.I had full support from my family my husband, Insha and Taasin, Father, Mother, Sister and Brother. I in any grammatical case got tremendous support from Raihan and my other batch mates (BCS 21st and MAGD). I would thank Netherlands administration and BRAC University to contemplate in the MAGD programme. Finally I show my sincere obligation and respect to the people of Bangladesh and the Ministry of Finance on behalf of Government of Bangladesh to al low me to study in this beautiful place and academic zone. ii Table of limit Page No. Declaration I Acknowledgement II Table of ContentsIII-IV Abbreviation V Abstract VI Chapter One- Introduction 1-16 1. 1 Historical Deve lopment of pains Law in Bangladesh 1 1. 2 Present Situation 2 1. 3 Workers Rights Situation 3 1. 4 leave forbidden of conjugations effective Advisory System 3 1. 5 Professional Legal Support is Costly 3 1. 6 New ram Code 4 1. 7 The Functions of grate legal amount of moneyture 4 1. 8 Labor Union in Bangladesh 5 1. 9 Industrial traffic Act, 2004 6 1. 10 Labor Union Activities in Bangladesh 7 1. 11 cover Union Activities in RMG Sector 8 1. 12 Labor Union in EPZ Units 10 1. 13 The Situation during Cargontaker Government10 1. 14 ILO Directives 11 1. 15 Rationale of the Study 13 1. 16 Background of the look for 13 1. 17 Objective of this seek Work 14 1. 17 (a) Research Question 14 1. 17 (b) Hypothesis 14 1. 18 Methodology 14 1. 19 Sources of Data 14 1. 20 Analytical Tools Used 15 1. 21 Sample Size and Structure 15 1. 22 Limitations 16 1. 23 Structure of the Study 16 iii Chapter Two- Labor Outburst in RMG Sector of Bangladesh 17-21 2. 1Various relative incidence of toil fer mentation 17 2. 2 Small Beginnings of a Mass Revolt 17 2. 3 Containing Riots in the RMG Sector 2. 4 Conclusion 19 20Chapter Three Literature Review 22-28 3. 2 Grievance of diligence was the centre of the grok upheaval 22 3. 3 Agreements with Garment Workers non honor 24 3. 4 Non implementation of minimum wage 25 3. 5 Lack of tolerance of the apprehend was reason behind that unrest 25 3. 6 Other interest Parties 26 3. 7 Labor legislation and wear upon unrest 26 3. 8 Unions and workers 27 3. 9 Issue which is not address 27 3. 10 Questionnaire 27 3. 11 Conclusion 28 Chapter Four Stake gripers perception regarding weary joint 29-39 4. 2 Issues that be Addressed in Questionnaire 294. 3 Overall Response 29 4. 6 Response of respondents from unaffected do industries 33 4. 8 Response of respondents from affected raiment industries Where Labor was Occurred 4. 9 Conclusion Chapter Five- Findings and Conclusion 36 39 40-43 5. 2 Lesson Learned 43 5. 3 Further Research 43 Reference 44 Appendix One Questionnaire 45 Appendix Two- Brief scenario of RMG sector of Bangladesh 46-50 iv ABBREVIATIONS BEA Bangladesh Economic Association BGMEA Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and merchandiseers Association BILS Bangladesh Institute of Labor Studies FDIForeign Direct Investment gross domestic product Gross Domestic Product LU cut into Union MFA Multi-Fibre establishment RMG Ready Made Garments EPZ Export Processing Zone v ABSTRACT Ready do Garments (RMG) is the briny foreign exchange earning sector of Bangladesh. At the liken time this labor intensive sector is really heavy to address the demands of occupation of a extensive population. Reputation of this sector is high which infrapins the success of this sector. But in new-fangled times the growth and beingness of this sector came under threat when this sector faced severe labor unrest.Due to the labor unrest at that place has been huge loss of production, and some of the factories were ruined by protesters, several laborers were killed, and lot of labors were injured and arrested. It is utter that there were legitimate demand of the laborers which should convey been addressed by the owners. But these demands were not addressed which created the score of the laborers. In variety of time these grievance bolstered the unrest. On the other hand, some laborers were not sincere and skilful to their job and responsibilities. These laborers mingled themselves in the destruction of their own industries.While almost of the researchers addressed the reasons of that unrest, in this research the probable solution of that problem has been addressed by collecting stakeholders perceptions through questionnaires. It has been found that to address the grievances and to find the limitations of the financial capacity of the owners a bridging mechanism, labor aggregate, betwixt laborers and owner is needed. Moreover, it was found that most of the respondents think that labor confederacy can be used as a tool to mitigate the risks of labor unrest in RMG sector of Bangladesh. vi Labor ferment in Bangladesh RMG SectorDoes Active Labor Union Reduce the Risk of Labor Unrest in RMG Sector? A Dissertation by Urmi Tamanna ID-07272026 MAGD Batch-2 okay as to Style and Contents By Professor Iftekhar Ghani Chowdhury Supervisor Institute of Governance Studies BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh November 2010 Labor Unrest in Bangladesh RMG Sector Does active labor uniting reduce the risk of labor unrest in RMG sector? Chapter-One Introduction Introduction The readymade habilitates (RMG) sector, the single biggest foreign exchange earner in Bangladesh has come a long way in last devil decades. The industry has crossed many a(prenominal) hurdles to substantiation competitive.It has proved many predictions futile and wrong and competes fiercely even after the abolition of quotas under Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) in the North American market and special market entry to European ma rkets. The credit for that motion goes primarily to the entrepreneurs and the laborers. But the relationship between these two major contri neverthelessors has come into question and the industry is under severe pressure because of labor unrest. After the labor unrest of 2006 in several RMG units, the sector carry on a loss to the tune of US$60 million, Khan, S. (2007).The fact remains that look at unionism is intimately absent in the garments sector and when responsible labor movement is not given any chance, the proceeds is indiscipline and chaos leading to a situation where the mob takes over. So the notion of the absence of labor unionism in the garments in most of the industries as a reason for widespread violence involve much research to reveal the reasons behind and offer possible policy solutions to the crisis. 1. 1 Historical suppuration of Labor Law In Bangladesh In British-India industrialization paved its way during the last part of eighteenth carbon.Workers con dition of work, environment was worst. That time the few labor jurisprudences existed in the sub-continent was not enough to protect the rights of the working people. most(prenominal) of the labour legalitys we have contractable from British-India and Pakistani period. First labor law came in this subcontinent was Workers requital Act, 1923. Workers got their Trade Union rights after a long struggle under Trade Union Act, 1926. At the time of Pakistani period 2 rive laws was there, Trade Union Act Industrial conflict Settlement Act, these 2 laws merge into IndustrialRelation Ordinance, 1969. Major labor laws enacted in the year 1965, much(prenominal) as Factories Act, Shops Establishment Act, Employment of Labour (SO) Act. Later on, so many amendments made on labor laws. Moreover, separate rules were also enacted for 1 better implementation of the law. Bangladesh government set up a separate Inspection federal agency to supervise and monitor the implementation of labor laws. 1. 2 Present situation Our labor laws are ease uply scattered in different statutes. In other words, labour laws are just to be codified.The necessity of much(prenominal) codification had been felt by many since long. Besides, the existing labor laws baffle from some inherent flaws and require to be updated to meet the present demand of proper dispensation of justice. Actually we inherited the laws and the legal system of our plain from British-India. The British enacted laws to primarily suit their colonial purpose. Now ours is liberated country and its outlook and demand have changed drastically. Therefore either the existing laws should be adequately amended or new laws be enacted, suiting the present demand of the cabaret.Out of 44 statutes of our labor laws 2 are from the nineteenth century and another 13 from the between the beginning of twentieth century and the partition of the sub-continent in 1947. Another 23 statutes were enacted during the Pakistan period (1 947-1971), the reset i. e. , six statutes have been enacted since liberation. These scattered laws need to be unified. keeping this in view in 1992 a National Labour Law Commission was smorgasbord. The Commission opted for recommending the canon of a Labour Code. The successions for a Labour Code, however, seem to have been shelved, at least for the time being.Nevertheless, chance(a) attempts have been undertaken to revive interest in the proposed Labour Code. The National Trade Union Leaders of the Labour Law Review commissioning was reconstituted in August 1998. Earlier the International Labour Organization-ILO office in Bangladesh also submitted its comments on the Draft Labour Code prepared by the Commission. 7-member review committee has been formed by the government to re-asses the proposed Draft Labour Code. However, after the emergence of the new state of Bangladesh, no such(prenominal)(prenominal)initiative has ever been taken by any of the successive governments and the issue has always been given covering fire seat by them. Surprisingly, the new recommended Labour Code, 1994 of the National Labour Law Commission is still awaiting governments commendation and subsequent enactment. Without a complete Labour Code, to end the violation of workers rights will remain a utmost cry. 2 1. 3 Workers rights situation Workers rights are highly violated in the country. Mass people are not aware of the rights of working people. even the policy makers are not that much concerned.Civil society shows negligence towards the rights of the workers. The Constitution of the country guarantees rights to organize except unfortunately there are so many restrictions to form and join Trade Union in several types of industries and areas i. e. Govt. Employees, Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Rural Electrification Board, and all types of security and confidential staffs, aegis Printing Press, employees of education/research institutions, hospitals and clinics, NGOs, Ar my, Police etc. To meet the end of these violation and deprivation awareness should be raised among the workers themselves.Labor Union activists should be given much knowledge and business line leader to build their capacity in collective talk terms and motivational act. 1. 4 Lack of unions legal advisory system Due to multiplicity, in house union system, political tailing and need of one single National Trade Centre, alternate unions becoming weak day by day. rank dues collection for union and rate of dues are very small size. Due to financial inability members are not set upting so many services from the union. One of important service they required is to overtake legal advice at the time of facing grievance handling, preparing court cases, protection of their rights etc.At present union has no such legal advisory system. Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies (BILS) can provide such services by establishing a small legal cell. 1. 5 Professional legal support is pricey L egal advice and legal support is always a costly service not only in Bangladesh but almost anywhere in the world. Workers income rate are very poor, their social security placement are also weak. Working section are always facing serious problem when they get some problem on their job. Workers jobs are always on risk. The employers have so much power to terminate 3 the job of workers.To face the legal court cases professional lawyers services they need but their services are very costly. Workers have no ability to pay for that. 1. 6 New Labor Code The countrys constitution guaranteed all the fundamental rights of the citizen and every body are equal in the eye of law, irrespective of color, sex, class, profession and religion. Bangladesh is a member of ILO since 1972 and obtained membership of the UN in 1974. though it has sanctioned 7 out of 8 core ILO Conventions the employers are use to ignoring the law. Most of the ratified ILO conventions are not fully implemented.The prese nt labour law of the country should be updated a complete labour codification should be passed. A step was taken in this regard in 1994 and a labor reckon was proposed. Trade Union federations of the country made their recommendations and suggestions to make the code a complete document for defend workers rights, but the government is still to pass the code. BILS 2005 1. 7 The functions of Labor Union A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who band together to achieve common goals in trace areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor.The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and load members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This whitethorn include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, body of work safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders a re binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. These organizations may comprise individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed.The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is maintaining or improving the conditions of their study Over the last triple hundred years, many trade unions have real into a number of forms, influenced by differing political and stinting regimes. The im intermeddle objectives and activities of trade unions vary and include 4 Provision of benefits to members Early trade unions, like neighborly Societies, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses.In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership. Collective n egociate Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions. Industrial effect Trade unions may enforce strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals. Political activity Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole.To this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such as the Labour troupe in Britain) for public office. (wikipedia) 1. 8 Labor Union in Bangladesh The Industrial Relations Ordinance, 1969 Ordinance XXIII of 1969 13th November, 1969 This code is about formation of trade unions, the regulation of relations between employers and workmen and the avoidance and colony of any differences or disputes arising between them or matters committed therewith. Certain related parts are depicted below.Sec 2(v) Collective bargaining agent in relation to an establishment or industry, means the trade union of workmen which, under section 22, is the agent of the workmen in the establishment or, as the case may be, industry, in the matter of collective bargaining Sec 2(xiii) Industrial Dispute means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any person 5Sec 2(xxiv) Settlement means a settlement arrived at in the course of conciliation proceeding, and includes an agreement between an employer and his workmen arrived at otherwise than in the course of any conciliation proceeding, where such agreement is in writing, has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to the Government, the babys dummy and such other person as may be prescribed Sec 2(xxvi) Trade Union means any combination of workmen or employers formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen andemployers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct or any trade or business and includes a federation of two or more trade unions Sec 3 Trade unions and emancipation of association. Subject to the provisions contained in this Ordinancea) Workers, without distinction whatsoever, shall have the right to establish and, subject only to the Rules of the organization concerned, to join associations of their own choosing without previous authorization b) Employers, without distinct whatsoever, shall have the right to establish and, subject only to the Rules of the organization concerned, to join associations of their own choosing without previous authorizationc) Trade unions and employers associations shall have the right to draw up their constitutions and rules, to elect their representatives in full free dom, to organize their administration and activities and to formulate their programmes d) Workers and employers organizations shall have the right to establish and join federations and confederations and any such organization, federation or confederation shall have the right to affiliate with international organizations and confederations of workers and employers organization Khan, 2006 p. p155-162 1. 9 Industrial Relations Act, 2004 Act no. 23 of 2004 4th September, 2004 This Act made provisions for recognizing the right of the workers to form association, regulation of relations and settlement of differences or disputes arising between employers 6and workers in Export Processing Zones and for matters connected therewith. Certain related sections are depicted below. Sec 5 Workers representation and welfare committee. (1) After first of this Act, the Executive Chairman or any officer authorized by him in that behalf, shall require the employer and the workers in an industrial unit in a zone to constitute, in prescribed manner, a Workers Representation and welfare Committee, hereinafter referred to as the committee. Sec 11 Duration and cessation of committee. (1) A committee constituted in a Zone shall be in existence till October 31, 2006 Sec 13 Formation of Workers Association. (1) With going of October 31, 2006 and beginning of November 1, 2006, the workers in an industrial unit situated within the territorial limits of a Zone shall have the right to form association to engage in industrial relations subject to the provisions made by or under this Act. Khan, 2006 p. p497-506 1. 10 Labor union activities in Bangladesh The trade unions are very strong in Bangladesh, although only 3. 5 percentage of the workforce is unionized, but most of the unions are bound to the public sector or state-controlled enterprises. jibe to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), there are a total of 23 national trade union centers in Bangladesh and ap proximately 5,450 trade unions.The largest of these are the Bangladesh Jatio Sramik League (BJSL) the Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Sramik Dal (BJSD) the Jatiya Sramik Party (JSP) the Bangladesh Free Trade Union Congress (BFTUC) and the Jatio Sramik League (JSL). These bodies are organized together in the ICFTU Bangladesh Council. About 1. 8 million of the countrys workers belong to unions, out of a total workforce of approximately 58 million. The unions tend to have strong links to major political parties or are controlled by political figures, and they often lead political action and strikes in the country. Strikes are extremely common in Bangladesh and can paralyze business activities for weeks. The private sector is less unionized and trade unions are practically banned from the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) until 2008, as the EPZ is exempted from certain labor laws.In case of industrial dispute the problems are supposed to be solved through the Labor Tribunal. 7 impertinent many Mi ddle Eastern countries, women in Bangladesh enjoy considerable freedom and are primarily involved in education and labor, although the employment and literacy rates among them generally are lower than among men. Recent surges in the garment industry brought new employment opportunities for women, as around 95 percent of people employed in this sector are women. However, in the rural areas the women very often are disadvantaged and among the poorer members of the communities. Currently, more than 37 percent of the labor force is women.However, unionization among women, and hence the protection of their rights, is generally lower than among men. National Economies Encyclopedia 1. 11 Trade union activities in RMG sector Trade Union movement in garments sector is very weak. Even it is weaker than the other sectors. There are 8 country wide registered trade union federations. There are 9 federations registered as division based. Another 5 registered federations are combined with Jute, T extile and leather Sector. aside from these, there are 6 unregistered federations in this sector. There are 3 alliances in the garment sector. These are 1. Bangladesh Garments Workers Unity Council.2. Bangladesh Garments Workers and Employees Unity Council. 3. B. N. C. C. (Bangladesh Coordinating Committee, affiliated with (ITGLWF). Main reason of the weakness of trade union movement of garment sector in Bangladesh are 1. Disunity and division of organizations. 2. Unlimited and long working hours. 3. absence seizure of Job security. 4. Migration from factory to factory. 5. Absence of weekly holiday and other holidays. 6. Majority of women. 7. State policy. 8. Elite class ownership. 9. Low wage. 10. Unemployment of the country. Though there were 16 unions representing garment workers in January 2006, according to the Democratic Workers Party the aim of unionization among workers was very low. Where unions were involved, they act more like extortionists, taking money from management to keep the employees in line while at the same time collecting dues from their members, with whom they had virtually no contact. Most of the unions had consider or indirect links with local and foreign NGOs, and receiving lucrative grants seems to be their main goal. July 14th, 2006 by Libcom Most of the trade unions appeared to be tools of one or other of the political parties, strikes being used more as vehicles for pursuing political goals against rival parties than improving 8 workers conditions.The Nation Garment Workers Federation apparently is an censure to this, being a more grass-roots organization, closer to an expression of workers selforganization emerging from their own struggles. It would be too favourable and simplistic to apply critiques of modern western business unions to such an formation. 11 years ago the NGWF was an organisation with 3 workers paid a basic garment workers wage in operation(p) out of a devolve in a workers slum. Working in conditions more similar for workers in Europe a century or two ago, basic organization for defence and improvement of working conditions is a matter, sometimes, of whether one starves or not.With rapid large-scale proletarianisation of rural workers in many parts of Asia (China, India etc) struggles for unionization are likely to follow. Though organising trade unions were banned by employers in the EPZs, this has changed, as one of the concessions won by the revolt. This is anyway a convenient concession for the owners a Bill was introduced into the US Senate which, if passed, would ban all imports produced in sweatshops. This is a form of US trade protectionism and corporate image management expressed as concern for workers conditions. The Bill would penalize Bangladesh, Jordan etc and Americas big rival China in, for example, the garment industry, by attempting to undercut their present advantage of cheaper labour costs. the great Los Angeles area has surpassed the New York area as the center of the North American garment industry. Home to more than 1,000 manufacturers who employ an estimated 90,000 workers, most of them immigrant, the garment and related industries account for as much as 10 percent of Los Angeles economy, according to Sweatshop Slaves. Nearly one in five local employees today work in the garment industry, making it Los Angeles leading manufacturing sector. (Review of Sweatshop Slaves Asian Americans in the Garment Industry, Various, 2006. ) As well as the dire conditions of employment, the low level of unionism is one likely reason for the ferocity of the workers response.When it erupts, unmediated class war is generally conducted more brutally on both sides. The Bangladesh state finally realised this when it brought in union officials to mediate and negotiate an end to the rebellion. In the long term, union representation is usually granted by the bosses as a necessary safety valve mechanism and tool of management for the stability of the production process. Libcom 2006 9 1. 12 Labor Union in EPZ units Labor union was banned from EPZ units until 2008. For the first time in the country, 69 industrial units in Dhaka and Chittagong export processing zones (EPZ) have introduced workers associations on the basis of referendums by workers.At the same time, workers of 22 industrial units have voted for not having any trade union body for themselves for all the same another year. The referendums on having workers associations were held from January to the middle of this month. There are 124 more eligible industrial units in these two EPZs which will have to hold their referendums by 2010 as per a decision of Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority (BEPZA) on the basis of a 2004 act on allowing trade union activities. Although referendums are supposed to be held without any outside(a) influence and spontaneously by the workers, BEPZA is putting pressure on the industry owners to hold them as short as possible.American labour gro up that has been pushing hard for implementing trade union rights at the EPZs has mounted pressure on the government to have the associations as soon as possible. The factories at the EPZs on an average pay 40 percent more than the factories outside the EPZs. Yet during last years unrest, some of the best paying factories in the EPZs came under attack by their own workers. Owners of these factories and law enforcement agencies have said this unrest was prompted by outsiders for their petty gains. Although the referendums are supposed to be held without any external influence and spontaneously by the workers, the Bepza is putting pressure on the industry owners to hold the referendums as soon as possible.The president of Bangladesh Readymade Garments Labour Federation, said, Lack of proper monitoring by the government, lack of sincerity of the owners and ignorance of workers of most factories are not complying with the law. bangladeshnews. com. bd, 23 March 2008 1. 13 The situation d uring caretaker government Garments are Bangladeshs main export, and have been a major contributor to the countrys economic growth in recent years. The industry has also been important in creating jobs for women. International companies that source garments in Bangladesh should insist that the Bangladeshi government end harassment of labor rights activists, said Adams.They should make it clear that labor organizing and activism is part of the deal when operating in the 10 world economic system and that they will not accept it if activists are jailed, affright or harassed by the authorities. Bangladesh has been under a state of emergency since January 11, 2007. The emergency rules have located serious limits on civil and political rights, and have severely diluted constitutional protections of individual rights. In a letter to the government dated August 1, 2007, Human Rights specify called for the lifting of the state of emergency. Emergency force Rules of January 25, 2007 proh ibits processions, meetings, assemblies and trade union activities.The interim government is abusing its emergency powers to target individuals who are trying to protect workers rights in Bangladeshs most important export industry, said Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch on the backdrop of the arrest of Mehedi Hasan of the Worker Rights Consortium (WRC) on January 24, 2008. He was arrested and detained by National Security Intelligence in Dhaka. His arrest is believed to be directly linked to the labor rights monitoring that he carried out for WRC, a nongovernmental organization that investigates labor practices at apparel factories, largely on behalf of US colleges and universities. Hasan is being held for violating Articles 3 and 4(1) of the Emergency Power Rules of January 25, 2007. In recent days, the authorities have invoked Emergency Power Rules and have filed evil cases against dozens of trade union members, including leaders of the Bangladesh Independent Garmen t Workers Union Federation.Many other labor rights activists have complained to Human Rights Watch about being threatened and being under constant surveillance. According to police sources, a number of international organizations and their staff members are currently being monitored for allegedly engineering science or inciting subversive activities within the garment industry. 1. 14 ILO Directives The International Labour Organisation rapped Bangladesh for its continuing mischance to provide full trade union freedoms in the country and for permitting serious violations of ILO Conventions both in law and in practice. In particular, it deplored the obstacles to the establishment of unions in Export Processing Zones and the arrest and harassment of union leaders and activists in the garment sector. 11And the ILOs Committee on the Application of Standards singled out Bangladesh for special tutelage expressing concern over the escalation of industrial violence stressing that freedom of association could only be exercised in a climate that was free from violence, pressure or threats of any kind against trade union leaders and members. The Committee demanded that the Bangladesh Government take measures for the amendment of the Labour Act and the EPZ Workers Associations and Industrial Relations Act so as to conduct them into full conformity with the provisions of ILO Convention 87 which Bangladesh has ratified and is duty-bound to observe. The ILO called upon the Bangladesh Government to ensure that all workers were fully guaranteed the protection of the Convention and demanded that the nece

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.