Friday, April 5, 2019
Discoveries And Inventions In Fundamental Sciences History Essay
Discoveries And Inventions In of import Sciences History EssayThere is a general concept that the sciences are exclusively the products of Western minds. follow-up of any standard book or encyclopedias regarding the history of science makes evident that the only contributors are europiumans and/or Americans. The most oft-mentioned names are Kepler, Galileo, Copernicus, Bacon, Da Vinci, Franklin, Newton, Benjamin etc. Thus it is make unavoidable to answer the major contributions to the development of the modern sciences by other cultures are minimal. The advancements do by ancient Chinese, Indian or particularly, Moslem scholars are hardly mentioned in most standard books and literature.Although Western civilization has do many invaluable contributions to the development of the sciences however, so have many other cultures. Unfortunately, Westerners have long been impute with discoveries that were made by muslims scientists many centuries before. Thus, many of the basic scie nces were invented by non-Europeans. For instance, George Sarton states that modern Western medicine did non innovationate from Europe and that it actually arose from the (Islamic) orient.inShare91515 points on redditMajor Inventions of Muslim ScientistsA turning of inventions and discoveries were made by the Muslim scientists throughout the history. Muslim geographers and navigators learned the use of magnetic needle, from the Chinese, and were the first to use magnetic needles in navigation. Muslims invented the compass and its use in navigation, which was later on passed to the West. European navigators relied on Muslim pilots and their instruments while exploring the unmapped territories. Gustav Le Bon claims that the magnetic needle and compass were the inventions of Muslims. The Chinese, probably learned of it from Muslim traders. It is noteworthy that after the fundamental interaction with the Muslims during the 8th century the Chinese improved their navigational expertis e.Ibn Firnas a Muslim scientist of Islamic Spain invented, constructed and tested a flying machine in the 800s A.D. Roger Bacon learned of flying machines from Arabic references to Ibn Firnas machine.According to Will Durant, Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain, invented a watch-like device in 9th century, which kept accurate succession. The Muslims also constructed a mannequin of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories.As early as the 9th century A.D Muslim mathematicians, the inventors of algebra, introduced the concept of employ letters for unascertained variables in equations. They solved a variety of complex equations through this system, including quadratic and boxlike equations. They utilise symbols to develop and perfect the binomial theorem. Thabit bin Qurrah was among the first Mathematicians of the Islamic Empire who accomplished this simply this as early as the 9th century A.D, and he was followed by Abul Wafa, whose 10th century book employ al gebra to advance geometry into an exact and simplified science.In the 9th century Muslim astronomers made numerous improvements upon Ptolemys findings. They were the first astronomers to animosity his archaic ideas. They produced hundreds of highly accurate astronomical tables and star charts. Many of their calculations are so precise that they are regarded as contemporary. Copies of plant on astronomy the Alphonsine Tables was transmitted to Europe via Islamic Spain, i.e. the Toledo Tables. In their critic of the Greeks, Muslims synthesized proof that the sun is the center of the solar system and that the orbits of other planets and the earth might be elliptical.During the 9th century the Muslim physician originated the science of pharmacology and was developed into a highly refined and exact science. Muslim chemists, pharmacists and physicians produced thousands of drugs and/or crude herbal extracts one thousand years prior to the supposed birth of pharmacology.During the 9th c entury, eyeglasses were invented by Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain and they were manufactured and sold throughout Spain for over two centuries. Any mention of eyeglasses by Roger Bacon was simply a regurgitation of the work of al-Haytham (d. 1039), whose research Bacon frequently referred to.During the 8th through fifteenth centuries, Muslim geographers produced untold volumes of books on the geography of Africa, Asia, India, China and the Indies. These writings included the military mans first geographical encyclopedias, almanacs and channel maps. The 14th century masterpieces of Ibn Battutah provide a small view of the geography of the ancient world.The science of ethnography was invented by the Muslim scholars of the 9th through 14th centuries. A number of Muslim geographers classified the races, writing detailed explanations of their physical appearances and unique cultural habits. Blumenbachs works were insignificant in comparison.Muslim physicians apply a variety of specific substances to destroy microbes. They applied sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite. Ar-Razi (10th century) used changeable compounds as topical antiseptics.During the 9th and 10th centuries, the Venetians learned of the art of fine glass production from Syrian artisans. drinking glass mirrors were in use in Islamic Spain as early as the 11th century.Ibn Yunus al-Masri discovered the pendulum in the 10th century, and was the first to study and document its oscillatory motion. Its value for use in clocks was introduced by Muslim physicists during the 15th century.Muslim mathematicians as early as the 10th century solved numerous equations of even higher degrees with ease. Binomial theorem was utilized and perfected for its use in the systematic solution of algebraic problems by hundreds of the Muslim mathematicians.In the 10th century numerous Muslim chemists produced medicinal-grade alcohol through the forge of distillation and manufactured the first distillati on devices on a large scale for use in chemistry. They used alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic.The prophet Muhammad wisely warned against entering or sledding a region poor from plague thus introducing the concept of quarantine for the very first time in the 7th century A.D. later in the 10th century, Muslim physicians innovated the use of isolation wards for individuals suffering with communicable diseases.As early as the 10th century, Muslim physicians and surgeons of 10th century used to practise purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent. In Islamic Spain surgeons utilized special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery. The origin of specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period raised the success rate so high that dignitaries throughout Europe came to Cordova, Spain, to be treated at what was comparably the Mayo Clinic of the Middle Ages.Islams ar-Razi wrote an in-depth treatise on the venous system, accurately de scribing the lick of the veins and their valves in the 10th century.Timeline of Muslim Scientists from 700 900 AD8th century700s petroleum civil engineering In Baghdad the streets were constructed and surface with tar, coming from the petroleum that oozed in natural oil fields in the region.700s 800s cosmetics In Spain a bang institute was started by Ziryab (Blackbird).740 828 Al-Amai, Zoology, Botany, Animal husbandry.770 840 mathematics The Calculus of resolution and juxtaposition (hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala), more briefly referred to as al-jabr, or algebra, was developed by Kharazmi, Algebra was a unifying theory which allowed rational numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes, etc., to all be treated as algebraic objects. It gave mathematics a whole new development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before, and provided a vehicle for future development of the subject. Another important construction of the introduction of algebraic idea s was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before.Al-Khwarizmis successors undertook a systematic application of arithmetic to algebra, algebra to arithmetic, both to trigonometry, algebra to the Euclidean theory of numbers, algebra to geometry, and geometry to algebra. This was how the creation of polynomial algebra, combinatorial analysis, numeric analysis, the numerical solution of equations, the new elementary theory of numbers, and the geometric construction of equations arose.Late 700s 800 musical science Mansour Zalzal of Kufa was a thespian (luth) and composer of the Abbasid era. Contributed musical scales that were later named after him (the Mansouri scale) and introduced positions (intervals) within scales such as the wasati-zalzal that was equidistant from the alwasati alqadima and wasati al-fors who made improvements on the purpose of the luth instrument and designed the Luth.In 715 800 chemistry The Muslim chemist, Gebe r (Jabir ibn Hayyan), is considered the father of chemistry, for introducing the experimental scientific method for chemistry, such as alembic, still, retort, pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, and filtration. He was the first chemist known to produce sulfuric acid, as well as many other laboratory instruments and chemical substances. His works include The elaboration of the Grand Elixir, The chest of learning in which he writes on nitric acid, Kitab al-Istitmam (translated to Latin later as Summa Perfectionis), and many others.715 800 alchemy Geber, introduced the first theories on the transmutation of metals, the philosophers stone, and the artificial creation of life in the laboratory.715 800 glass Geber added colour to glass by introducing small quantities of metallic-looking oxides to the glass, such as manganese dioxide (magnesia). This was a new advancement in the glass industry unknown in antiquity.9th century800 86 8 biology, zoology, linguistics, language, Amr ibn Bahr al-Jahiz wrote a number of works on zoology, lexicography, rhetoric, and Arabic grammar. In his most far-famed book the Book of Animals, he was the first to discuss food chains, and environmental determinism by arguing that the environment can determine the physical characteristics of the inhabitants in a certain community he also utter that the origins of different colors of human skin is the result of the environment. The struggle for existence and the theory of evolution by natural selection was first discussed by him.800 873 Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Latinized, Alkindus.) was an expert in Optics, Metallurgy, Cryptography, Medicine, Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy. He worked at the star sign of Wisdom which was set up in 810. He introduces quantification into medicine in his book De Gradibus.In 810 the works of Greek and Indian scientists on astronomy and mathematics were translated into Arabic in Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) which was set up in Baghdad.820 mathematics Mahani (full name Abu Abdollah Muhammad ibn Isa Mahani in Arabic Al-Mahani). Conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to algebraic problems.836 901 anatomy astronomy mathematics mechanics Born Thabit Ibn Qurra (Latinized, Thebit.) made considerable contributions in mathematics particularly in number theory and geometry while studying at Baghdads House of Wisdom under the Banu Musa brothers. He discovered the theorem by which pairs of amicable numbers can be found i.e., two numbers such that to each one is the sum of the proper divisors of the other. Later, al-Baghdadi (b. 980) and al-Haytham (born 965) developed variants of the theorem.838 870 Tabari (full name Ali ibn Sahl Rabban Al-Tabari) made many contributions in Calligraphy, Mathematics, Literature, and Medicine.In middle 800s chemistry Al-Kindi gave 107 recipes for making perfumes and also wrote on the distillation of wine as that of rose water, in his book Kitab Kimia al-otoor wa al-taseedat (book of the chemistry of perfumes and distillations).850 930 mathematics Abu Kamil of Egypt (full name, Abu Kamil Shuja ibn Aslam ibn Muhammad ibn Shuja) made an important link in the development of algebra between al-Khwarizmi and al-Karajis time not development the symbols, but writing powers of x in words, he had begun to understand what should be written in symbols.852 aviation, escape Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman) made the first successful parachute fall near Crdoba, Spain using a huge wing-like cloak.858 929 astronomy mathematics Al-Battani (Albategnius) made valuable works on astronomy, trigonometry etc.860 Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) was master in Civil engineering and Astronomy.864 930 chemistry medicine Al-Razi (Rhazes) canvass Astronomy, Chemistry, Medicine, Ophthalmology and Smallpox. He wrote on Naft (naphta or petroleum) and its distillates in his book Kitab sirr al-asrar (book of the secre t of secrets). When choosing a site to build Baghdads hospital, he hung pieces of fresh meat in different parts of the city and selected the location where the meat took the longest to rot, for grammatical construction the hospital. He also suggested that patients must not be told about their real condition so that maintenance or despair may not affect the healing process. His notable works were on soap, alkali, stifling soda, and glycerine. He also gave the descriptions of equipment, processes and methods for their preparation in his book Kitab al-Asrar (book of secrets) in 925.870 950 Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) wrote on early Islamic philosophy, system of logic in Islamic philosophy, Muslim sociology, musical science and political science.In 875 aviation, flight Abbas Ibn Firnas made the first flight in a hang glider with artificial wings, but his landing was unsuccessful. He also worked on mechanics of Flight, Planetarium, and Artificial Crystals. Ibn Firnas was the first to investigate the means of flight.800s chemistry petroleum Oilfields in Baku, Azerbaijan, generated commercial activities and industry. These oilfields, were wells dug to set up the Naft (or naphta, or crude petroleum) these were described by geographer Masudi in the 10th century and by Marco Polo in the thirteenth century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.10th century900s mathematics accounting By this century, three systems of counting were used in the Arab world. First was the Finger-reckoning arithmetic, in this system the numerals were written entirely in words this system was used by the business community. Second was the sexagesimal system, originated by the Babylonians, in this system the numerals were denoted by letters of the Arabic alphabet it was used by Arab mathematicians in astronomical work. The third was the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, which was used with various sets of symbols. arithmetic of this system required the use of a dust board (a sort of handheld blackboard) because the methods required touching of numbers in the calculation and rubbing some out as the calculation proceeded. Later these methods were limited by Al-Uqlidisi (born 920) for pen and paper use. Eventually the advances enabled the decimal system to be used throughout the world in its standard form.