Sunday, March 31, 2019

Effects of Earthquakes on Humans and Environment

Effects of Earthquakes on Humans and EnvironmentEarthquakes fecal matter eat disastrous make on graciouskinds and on the environment. An temblor is the ready of trembling, rolling and vibration of the ground triggered by the sudden shift of null that is stored below the surface of the Earth (Ford 2004). A scientific instrument called a seismometer is used by scientists to record, and posting strengthens of temblors (McNally 2007). The intensity or the size of an humansquake is measured by a number called the magnitude. Actually, globequakes chance in chance(a) and e genuinelywhere and as a result, the estimate by scientists for each daylight is that more than thousands minor quakes make it without triggering any physical damage and for the most part they atomic number 18 imperceptible. Earthquakes frequently occur in the following countries China, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, United States, Japan, and the Philippines. In these regions at that place are a batch of earthquakes and alike they require legion(predicate) vol shadoweroes. There are three chief(prenominal) runs of earthquakes tectonic home movement, human activities, and vol wadisteric eruptions.2. BackgroundEarthquakes destroy property and sire death. On July 28, 1976, there was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake in the city of Tangshan (Rosenberg 1997). The strength of the earthquake was recorded by a scientific instrument called a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. It is an instrument that can detect and measure the ground motion from an earthquake (McNally 2007). At 0342 local time, the earthquake flush Tangshan and over a million of slew were sleeping. As a result, hundreds of thousands of concourse were killed and more mass were reported missing and presumed dead. There were a lot of people were badly injured. Tangshan is located in Northeastern China an field of battle devastated by earthquakes. The earthquake was so strong that it triggered infrastructure collapse including houses, schools, shops, lovingnesshland clinics, roads, railway station, factories, and bridges. The people in Beijing also entangle the tremors. A lot of people lost their lives because most their houses were completely destroyed. The city of Tangshan is being rebuilt nowadays by its citizens.3. Causes3.1 Cause 1 Tectonic Plate safariThe main cause of earthquakes is tectonic plate movement. The crust of the earth consists of many pieces called tectonic plates. There are plates along the outer layer of the earth which are floating on the molten magma low the crust of the earth. (Ganguly 2008) The convection online in the molten magma drive the plates to move inside the earth. They move unceasingly until they pass through each early(a). When the two plates meet together, they start to touch on and rub each other but they are not moving. afterward a while, the draw beneath builds up and keeps on rising. Once they cannot manipulate the pressure, it voliti on be expelled. This sudden release of energy and the strength of the plates cause the ground shake and the two plates start to break. (Why do earthquake happen? n.d.) For example, on December 26, 2004, an earthquake hit the Sumatra, Indonesia where the Indian and Burmese plates in India naval are broken and one plate is moved crossways the top of the other plate. (Magnitude 9.1-Off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra 2008) The region that breaks on the crust is known as a fault which usually can be seen on the surface of the earth. The point where earthquakes begin and break the plates clandestine is known as focus and above the focus, on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. During plate movement, one plate gets submerged into the molten magma and another plate is moved crossways the top of it. This plate rises up due to the heat of molten magma. The plates keep on moving until they get stuck against each other. virtually earthquakes drive place on the edges of th e plates where one plate is forced except into the earth crust while another plate is moved across the top of the submerged plate.3.2 Cause 2 Human ActivitiesAnother bring factor to earthquakes is human activities. There are many human activities that cause an earthquake. Building skyscrapers is a good example that may cause an earthquake. galore(postnominal) engineers and scientists are c erstwhilerned slightly the types of buildings in construction. Skyscraper Taipei ci with the tip of 508 meters which is the worlds tallest building. According to the geologist Cheng Horng Ling (2005), from the National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 101 may cause an earthquake because the 101-storey skyscraper is built the pains on an earthquake fault. An ancient earthquake fault may reopen as the stress from the buildings exerting on the ground increases. Besides that, the injection of fluids in the mountain or into the crust of the earth also triggers earthquakes. A long time ago, the m ain purpose of humans injecting fluid was that the injection was the best way to specify of toxic pine. For example, in the Rocky Mountains where there is a place for waste disposal. (Madrigal, A 2008) The injection of fluids into deep rises causes changing of the stress of the tube-shaped structure and the stress can generate an earthquake. Furthermore, the release of pressure when extracting oil and infixed gas can also cause earthquake.3.3 Cause 3 volcanic EruptionsIn addition, volcanic eruptions can also cause earthquakes. Normally, earthquakes are very active in areas of volcanic activity where they can either occur on their own or with the eruption. (Presnell 2002) Most of the time, the earthquakes triggered by the eruption of volcanoes are within ten to twenty miles around the volcanoes. In order to release the huge pressure that builds up by the molten magma underneath the earth crust, it always tries to look for an opening or an area that is fairly weak. (Ganguly 2008) Therefore, areas that have active volcanoes accompanied by volcanic activities are always habituated to the earthquakes because the pressure builds up by the magma has surpassed the limit that earth crust can sustain. If a volcano eruption produces acidic lava then it can be predicted that there will an earthquake with the strongest magnitude. It is because acidic lava will solidify once it contacts the air and block the volcanos vents so that pressure cannot escape. As a result, pressure is developed inside and the resultant explosion can be withering and destroying, producing an earthquake of significant magnitude.4. Transition StatementHaving looked at the causes of earthquakes, its main cause will be discussed in the following. The effects can be in endpoints of hearty, environmental and economic. An earthquake can bring nifty impacts to the society. It is an unbearable scene as people die in the aftermath of earthquakes and expiration their love one to suffer from thei r death. around of natural disasters like tsunamis and landslides can be triggered by earthquakes. Earthquakes can also have disastrous effect to the countrys economy.5. Effects5.1 Effect 1 Social ImpactsOne of the biggest effects of earthquakes is the social impact on survivors. Earthquakes have short term impacts as well up as long term impacts. The short term impacts can be seen in the aftermath of earthquakes. We can see thousands of people dying and many corpses. The 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, China, for instance, caused tens of thousands of deaths and hundreds thousands of people were injured. (Magnitude 7.9-Eastern Sichuan, China 2008.) A powerful earthquake can destroy buildings, factories, shops, roads, bridges and schools. These cause many people to suit homeless. Furthermore, earthquakes can cause disruption to public services like raptus systems and communication connections. (Earthquake n.d.) Worst of all, survivors face a lack of drinking water because water pipe s burst and water supplies are contaminated. In the cases of long term social impacts, thousands of children became orphans as their parents are killed in the earthquake. Most of the parents are dispirited and the town lost a generation because their children were killed in schools that collapsed.5.2 Effect 2 Environmental ImpactsThere are also environmental impacts. A tsunami, for instance, is produced by an earthquake. Tsunamis are tidal waves that are caused by the sudden movement of plates under the sea floor during an underwater earthquake. (What are effects of earthquakes? n.d.) This wave can move swiftly a long way across the ocean. (Effects of earthquakes n.d.) When a large scale of tsunami hits the seashore area, it can trigger enormous eating away as well as destroy buildings in its path. Worst of all, people will also be washed away by the tsunami. For example, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami hit some nations around the Indian Ocean and caused hundreds of thousands of de aths. Earthquakes can cause landslides. It is very dangerous especially for buildings in cranky area on hillsides or mountains where soft soils can be liquefied by the tremors of earthquakes. During an earthquake, buildings can fall down hills with soil and bury people under the soil. People will be buried alive. In addition, aftershocks are also effects of earthquakes. Aftershocks are small tremors which disperse it to other places and other people can feel it after the main shocks of an earthquake. For instance, in Penang, Malaysia, there are no earthquakes, but when an earthquake happened in Sumatra it was so great that even Malaysians living in Penang experienced aftershocks. (See 2006)5.3 Effect 3 economic science ImpactsApart from social and environmental impacts, earthquakes also have negative effects on a nations economy. Governments have to be responsible for the damage caused by earthquakes. As we can see, earthquakes cause infrastructures to collapse, reservoirs dams, shops, and hospitals are devastated after an earthquake. (Earthquake n.d.) Governments have to fall out sizeable amounts of money to rebuild the place. Earthquakes also cause spending of the superior to distribute food and medicine to victims. Markets in special(prenominal) may be disrupted and this causes uneasy trade. Furthermore, investors whose money is in that particular area for suppuration may decide to withdraw. Once the investors withdraw the investment in the particular country, it will a cause loss of job opportunities as well as the countrys income diminishing and an unstable of economy.6. ConclusionIn conclusion, earthquakes are onerous to predict and can happen any time. Tectonics plate movement, human activities and volcanic eruptions are 3 of the causes of earthquakes, whose effects can be felt socially, environmentally, and economically. As we can see, prevention of earthquakes is absolutely impossible, so, suitable action to cut down injury and death is of ut termost importance. Some safety action should take place, such as evacuation and safety build structures to resist earthquakes. Some countries, such as the United States and Japan carried out research about public buildings designed to resist earthquakes. (Moleworth 2008) The results are that the whole building will move to and fro without trembling. It is very important to have this facility in earthquakes zones as damage and lives are at risk.(1775 words)ReferencesBignerds. 2008. Earthquake.http// (accessed October 6, 2008)Earthquake. n.d.http// (accessed October 13, 2008)Effects of earthquakes. n.d.http// individualized/gofamily/quake/effects.html (accessed October 21, 2008)Ford, R. 2004. Glossary.http// (accessed October 21, 2008)Ganguly, P. 2008. What causes earthquakes?http//www.buzzle.c om/articles/what-causes-earthquake.html (accessed October 17, 2008)Madrigal, A. 2008. Top 5 ways to cause a synthetic earthquake.http// (accessed October 29, 2008)Magnitude 7.9-Eastern Sichuan, China. 2008.http// (accessed October 13, 2008)Magnitude 9.1-Off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra. 2008http// (accessed October 13, 2008)McNally, K. 2007. Earthquake.http// (accessed October 13, 2008)Molesworth, C. 2008. Pacific detergent builder and engineer.http// (accessed October 27, 2008)Presnell, W. 2002. What causes earthquakes?http// (accessed October 21, 2008)Ravillious, K. 2008. Skyscraper that may cause earthquakeshttp// aturaldisasters.climatechange (accessed October 6, 2008)Rosenberg, J. n.d. Tangshan The deadliest earthquake.http// (accessed October 21, 2008)See, B and S. C. Looi. 2008. Tremors felt in Penang.http// (accessed October 13, 2008)The Free Dictionary. n.d.http// (accessed October 30, 2008)What are the effects of earthquake? n.d.http// (accessed October 30, 2008)Why do earthquake happen? n.d.http// (accessed October 17, 2008)

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