Friday, March 29, 2019

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Bleach

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of BleachHouse hold flip white is a common commodity apply by each(prenominal) told income groups of India. This is chiefly because of hot and humid climatic condition which left us with no new(prenominal) choice than white or dispirit colour e preciseday wear c get byhes. To maintain personal hygiene and attractive look within the operational budget it is necessary to use whitenes. One question which b some otherwiseed me quite an oft was, when so many whitewash shits ar accessible, which sensation is the best to buy and this gave me the idea to frame my research question analyze the comprise-effectiveness of various places of atomic number 17-based decolorizees containing atomic number 11 hypochlorite accessible in Indian Market consequently to make the usableness and effectiveness of the discoloring agentes, it was worth calculating the immersion of secrete centilitre per rupee (Indian currency) spent.The different disco lorisees were requireed and the soaking up of the quit chlorine was calculated employ iodometric titration. The cost per rupee was calculated and comparison was d iodine victimisation statistical tools.After necessary calculations and comparison, it was concluded that the most cost-effective make whiteing agent is local anesthetic decolourize. Local bleach out has maximum parsimony of free chlorine per rupee spent. Although the counterspyes of free chlorine in local bleach is sound 0.276 groyne/dm3 while in that of rin and robin be 0.68 gram molecule/dm3 and 0.588mol/dm3 respectively. entirely the local bleach is quite cheaper to other bleaches. It cost 30 rupees/dm3 while Robin costs 66 rupees/dm3 and Rin costs 80 rupees/dm3. The concentration of free chlorine per rupee spent on bleach is 0.0092mol/dm3 while that of Rin bleach and Robin bleach is 0.0085mol/dm3 and 0.0089mol/dm3. Thus, I conclude that Local Bleach fall guy is the most cost-effective brand among the t hree available in India.INTRODUCTION1.1 BackgroundAs climate of India is hot and humid, people prefer to dress in deliberate down or white colour cloth. To keep them clean is a demand for hygiene. Hence it requires daily washing and development bleach as the light colour textile expose the stains much easily. When employ in O.K. quantity and right counseling, bleach re incites the nasty stains from white color fabric and brings back the brightness. Looking into Indian economy, it is not possible to buy dresses in large number by concoursees . Thus sluttish way go forth is the use of bleaches.So when I started looking for a yield for my ext remaindered essay, my intensions were very clear. I was looking for an argona for investigation which exit help me to fulfill my requirement to do an essay for my diploma and project me the dual benefit to help my countrymen to choose a better and cost effective bleach which is affordable by them. I postulate collect the three ble aches which were having the maximum sale in the dineroet , two were brand viz., Rin and Robin and one and only(a) was a local brand usually purchased by lower income group people.Bleach is a chemic that removes colors or whitens, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include sign chlorine bleach, a re ancestor of approximately 3-6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and oxygen bleach, which contains enthalpy peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound such(prenominal) as sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, sodium persulfate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g., tetraacetylethylenediamine and/or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate.1 in that location argon other types of bleaches as well for example bleaches which hare utilize for the bleaching of wood pulp, fats and oils, cellulose, flour, textiles, bee wax, skin etc. the commonly apply bleach for this decide is chlorine dioxide and in a number of other industries. In t he regimen industry, some organic peroxides(benzoyl peroxide,etc.) and other agents (e.g., bromates) are used as flour bleaching and maturing agents. Peracetic acid and ozone are used in the manufacture of paper products, peculiarly newsprint and white Kraft paper.2But my investigation is related to household bleach used for removal of stains , which usually contain chlorine, though it often masquerades behind aliases such as sodium hypochlorite or hypochlorite.3 Household bleach, used to whiten fabrics or remove mold from surfaces, is a 5% resolve of a stabilized form of chlorine.4It is particularly effective on cotton plant part, which stains easily but bleaches well. Usually 50 to 250 ml of bleach per blame is recomm extirpateed for a mensuration-size washer. The properties of household bleach that make it effective for removing stains also head in cumulative damage to organic fibers such as cotton, and the useful lifespan of these materials go away be shortened with re gular bleaching. The sodium hydrated oxide (NaOH) that is also found in household bleach (as storied later) causes fiber degradation as well. It is not volatile, and proportion metres of NaOH not rinsed out will continue slowly degrading organic fibers in the presence of humidity. For these reasons, if stains are localized, spot treatments should be considered whenever possible. With safety precautions, post-treatment with weak organic acids such as acetic acid (vinegar) will neutralize the NaOH, and volatilize the chlorine from residual hypochlorite. Old t-shirts and cotton sheets that rip easily demonstrate the costs of launder with household bleach. Hot water increases the activity of the bleach, owing to the thermal depravity of hypochlorite which ultimately generates environmentally-undesirable chlorate.5Color in most dyes and pigments are produced by gram moleculecules, such as beta carotene, which contain chromophores. Chemical bleaches work in one of two waysAn oxidiz ing bleach works by breaking the chemical bonds that make up the chromophore. This changes the molecule into a different substance that each does not contain a chromophore, or contains a chromophore that does not immerse visible light.Reducing bleach works by converting double bonds in the chromophore into single bonds. This eliminates the ability of the chromophore to absorb visible light.6The chlorine based bleaches are oxidized bleach. These bleaches have an edge over reducing bleaches because they act as disinfectant as well.The process of bleaching fanny be summarized in the quest set of chemical receptionsCl2(aq) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + HClO(aq)The H+ ion of the hypochlorous acid whence dissolves into final result, and so the final result is effectivelyCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) 2H+ (aq) + Cl-(aq) + ClO-(aq)Hypochlorite t completions to decompose into chloride and a super reactive form of oxygenClO- Cl- +1/2 O2This oxygen then reacts with organic substances to produce bleac hing or antiseptic effects.7To begin my investigation I gathered information about brands of chlorine based bleach, its uses and its contents. From the information imperturbable I found out that sodium hypochlorite is an active ingredient in bleaches. atomic number 11 hypochlorite is the magical ingredient which removes stains from the clothes. So if I mention out which bleach has the more concentration of sodium hypochlorite and is cheaper than other bleaches will be considered as the best bleach for Indian people. This observation led to my little topic selection that is Investigating the cost-effectiveness of various brands of chlorine-based bleaches containing sodium hypochlorite accessible in Indian MarketAfter selection of topic next unequivocal step was to find various systems available in literature and select for an appropriate regularity for the estimation of the sodium hypochlorite in the bleaches. Various methods available are discussed in the methodology section of my essay. The one I have selected is based on the fact that it is easy to do and also gives a fair estimation of the concentration of hypochlorite in the available laboratory conditions.1.2 Methods to calculate the cost effectiveness of BleachSome of the methods available in literature for the estimation of concentration of sodium hypochlorite are discussed belowMethod 1One of the common methods is to add excess hydrogen peroxide to a measured do of bleach. This will result in the formation of oxygen gas. The record book of the gas is smooth over water and measured. This is then used to calculate the concentration of sodium hypochlorite in a house hold bleach sample.A few commercial bleaches in their containers, with prices, stack be placed on a sui slacken tray, each with a 10 cm3 spray and 250 cm3 beaker, both labeled, into which small samples of the bleach send away be placed. judge 5 cm3 of each bleach into their side-arm flaskful for each experiment. Small sample s of the hydrogen peroxide ancestor could be collected in a cytosine cm3 beaker. Bleaches liberate toxic chlorine gas on contact with acids.The chemical reaction involved isH2O2(aq) + NaOCl(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) + O2(g)Direct comparison of flock of oxygen collected in the measuring cylinder can be used to canvass the effectiveness of the bleach.8Method 2Spectophotometric method has also been employed for the three-figure estimation of sodium hypochlorite in commercially available bleach stem. The method is based directly on the absorbance of hypochlorite in alcalescent aqueous media. The other method takes advantage of the quantitative reaction of hypochlorite and ammonia in alkaline event to form chloramine, which has a higher molar absorptivity.9Method 3Another most common laboratory method is IODOMETRIC TITRATION.We can determine the OCl- ion content of a bleaching resolving power by reacting a inhabitn mass or volume of the outcome with excess reducing agent, such as iodide ion (I-) in an acidic consequence.OCl- (aq, colorless) + 2I-(aq, colorless) + 2H3O+(aq) - I2(aq, brownish) + Cl-(aq, colorless) + 3H2O(l)The reaction in a higher place proceeds to completion. Visible reason of reaction is the change in the appearance of the event from colorless to brown, imputable to the formation of iodine (I2). In the presence of excess I- ion, the amount of I2 organize is a measure of the amount of OCl- ion reacting.Then we determine the amount of I2 organise by titrating the I2 with a standard sodium thiosulfate re resolving power (Na2S2O3). The titration reaction for this experiment is shown in the equation below.I2 (aq, brown) + 2 S2O3-2(aq, colorless) 2I- + 2S4O3-2(aq, colorless)Thiosulfate ion is a reducing agent that reacts quantitatively with I2. The titration reaction is complete when the I2 make from the reaction of OCl- ion with I- ion is reconverted to I- ion by S2O3-2 ion.As the titration proceeds, the I2 concentration in the ancest or decreases. This causes the asc closureent color to change from brown to pale yellow near the end of titration. The end point occurs when all the I2 has reacted and the solution is colorless. Because the change from yellow to colorless is not very distinct, establishing the end point of this final color change is difficult. We can make the end point more distinct by adding a small amount of starch solution to the titration mixture when the solution turns pale yellow. The unreacted I2 combines with the starch, forming a bass blue obscure. The starch molecules tend to curl up into spirals and the hole formed is just the right size for the iodine molecules to fit in. sumitional S2O3-2 ion reacts with the complex I2, ca use a breakdown of the complex. Disappearance of the blue color signals the end point.10We can determine the concentration of OCl- ion in the solution. The moles of iodine in the solution are equal to moles of sodium hypochlorite. So then we can find out the concen tration of OCl-.I have used the iodometric titration for my investigation becauseIt is easy to carry it out in school laboratory conditions.Gas volume measurement often leads to more random errors in the measurements which ultimately feign the concentration calculations.Spectrophotometric methods are most reliable method but collectible to non availability of the instrument, I took the decision to stick to iodometric titration.2. METHODOLOGY2.1 Hypothesis more(prenominal) the sodium thiosulfate used to titrate the solution more effective is the bleach at removing the stains.The bleach which has high concentration of sodium hypochlorite is better at removing stains then the bleach with less concentration of sodium hypochlorite.Based on Indian mentality, the expensive the bleach the better is it at removing the stains.The expensive brand should be more cost effective.2.2 Selection of bleaches3 different chlorine-based bleaches containing sodium hypochlorite which are easily availabl e in Indian market. The first one is rin bleach which is thought to be the best bleach because it is expensive of all bleaches available in the market. It costs 40 Rs for calciferol ml. The second bleach which I have interpreted is robin which costs 33 Rs for 500ml, a great competitor to RIN. And the third bleach which I have taken is bleach from a local brand which costs only 15Rs for 500ml.2.3 examine 1Make a soya bean solution victimization 17 grams of soyabean and change state up to ascorbic acid cm3 mark. Put three drops of the solution on a piece of cloth and using a syringe the amount of bleach required to remove the stain should be noted down.2.4 Experiment 2As told earlier I will be using titration with sodium thiosulfate for calculating the concentration of sodium thiosulfate in the bleaches. The method involves two main steps.Step 1 Standardizing the solution of sodium thiosulfate solutionAs sodium thiosulfate is not a primary standard, so it was convertible using a known concentration of potassium iodate KIO3 and the exact concentration of sodium thiosulfate was calculated.Approximately 8.000.01 grams of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 5H2O) was taken a 100 cm3 beaker and dissolved by adding small amount of double dis guttered water. It was stirred using a glass rod public treasury it was completely dissolved.Solution was take awayred to 250 cm3 of standard flask carefully using a funnel.Solution was made up to the mark and mixed well by tilting the flask three times.A solution of potassium iodate, KIO3 (0.2 Mole/dm3) was prepared by dissolving 10.70.01 grams of KIO3 in 100 cm3 beaker and dissolving it in minimum amount of water and making the solution in 250 cm3 standard flask.Further 25.00.06 cm3 of KIO3 solution is pipette out using a 25.00.06 cm3 pipette and a pipette filler and poured in standard measuring flask and solution was made 250 cm3 using sublimateled water. expression of 1 mol/dm3 of sulphuric acidTake 55cm3 of 98% pure sulphur ic acid in 100cm3 measuring flask.Now slowly pour this acid into 500cm3 of constantly stirred water in a beakerNow transfer this solution into 1dm3 cone-shaped flask and add water till the 1dm3 mark.Preparation of 10% potassium iodideTake 10grams of potassium iodideDissolve it in 100cm3 solutionPreparation of 2%starch indicatorTake 2grams of starchAdd little bit of cold water until a smooth feast is obtainedAdd 100cm3 of boiling water and stirHeat the solution until the solution is clear25.00.06 cm3 of KIO3 solution is pipette out using a 25.00.06 cm3 pipette and a pipette filler and poured in conical flask.10.000.05 cm3 of potassium iodide (10% w/v) is added to the flask using a measuring cylinder.To this solution 10 .000.05 cm3 of sulfuric acid (1 mol/dm3) is added to the flask using another measuring cylinder.Sodium thiosulfate is filled in 50.000.05 cm3 burette and added to the conical flask containing KIO3, KI and H2SO4solution till the solution in the conical flask moody p ale yellow.2 to 3 drops of starch solution (1% w/v) was added to the conical flask.The solution turned blue black.More sodium thiosulfate was added to the conical flask with constant swirling till the solution turned colorless.The final volume of thiosulfate solution added is put down trine concordant readings are taken to have consistency in the recorded dataStep 2 Titration of the different brands of bleaches using standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. Thus calculating the concentration of sodium hypochlorite present in different brands of bleaches.ProcedureI have taken 25.00.06cm3 of Rin bleach using a pipette and pipette filler into 250cm3 graduated flask.To this water was added to make the solution up to 250cm3 mark.25.00.06cm3 of the solution poured with the help of pipette into a conical flask and the same procedure as given above was restate with RIN bleach followed by the other two bleaches, Robin and local brand.3. data collection and processing3.1 Finding out th e concentration of Sodium Thiosulfate standardization of sodium thiosulfateVolume of potassium iodate taken in conical flask = 25.00.06 cm3final burette reading / cm30.05cm320.1019.9020.00initial burette reading / cm30.05cm30.000.000.00volume of sodium thiosulfate used / cm30.1cm320.1019.9020.00Average volume of sodium thiosulfate used = 20.00 cm3Calculations25.0 cm3 of KIO3 solution required 20.00 cm3 of Sodium thiosulfate.The ionic equation related to the titration isIO3-1 + 5I-1 + 6H+ 3I2 + 3H2OThe I2 produced by the reaction between iodate ion and iodide ion is related stoichiometrically to thiosulfate ion as followsI2 + 2S2O32- S4O62- + 2I-1Moles of KIO3 (0.1 Mol/dm3) in diluted solution = 0.01 mol/dm3Moles of 0.01 mol/dm3 KIO3 in 25 cm3 of solution = 0.01 x 25 x 10-3= 0.25 x10-3Ratio of moles of KIO3 I21 5So moles of I2 in solution = 5 x 1 x 0.25 x10-3= 1.25 x10-3Ratio of moles of I2 S2O32-1 2Therefore moles of thiosulfate = 2 x 1 x 1.25 x10-3= 2.50 x 10-320.00 cm3 of th iosulfate solution has 2.50 x 10-3 molesTherefore the concentration of thiosulfate solution = 2.50 x 10-3 x 103/20.00= 0.125 mol/dm33.2 collectionT jimmy for the t- test between RIN and ROBIN is 36.83644This value is a lot higher than the cut off value (2.31. using degrees of freedom= n1-1 + n2-1 = 8) at a 5% significance level. This implies that there is lot lesser than .1% chance that the 2sets of readings belong to one population or the loss is just difference is insignificant.3.3 Calculation25.0 cm3 of diluted Rin brand bleach solution required 27.8 cm3 of Sodium thiosulfate.Moles of sodium thiosulphate=Moles of iodine, I2, were present in the conical flask after the bleach reacted with an excess of iodide ions2S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) S4O62-(aq) + 2I-(aq)Moles of I2 = moles of sodium thiosulphate 2Moles of I2 = 0.00348 2Moles of I2 = 0.0017 moles1 mol of iodine is displaced by 1 mol of free chlorine.Cl 2(aq) + 2I-(aq) 2Cl-(aq) + I2 (aq)The free chlorine concentration, in mol dm- 3, of the bleach RIN1 mole iodine = 1 mole of free chlorine25cm3 of diluted bleach solution contains 0.0017 moles of chlorineTherefore the undiluted bleach solution of 25 cm3 would contain .017 moles slow-wittedness of iodine in 500 cm3 of RIN bleach solution isTherefore the concentration is 0.34mol/500cm3 of RIN bleach.Therefore the concentration is 0.68mol/dm3.25.0 cm3 of diluted Robin brand bleach solution required 23.53 cm3 of Sodium thiosulfate.Moles of sodium thiosulphate=Moles of iodine, I2, were present in the conical flask after the bleach reacted with an excess of iodide ions2S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) S4O62-(aq) + 2I-(aq)Moles of I2 = moles of sodium thiosulphate 2Moles of I2 = 0.00294 2Moles of I2 = 0.00147 moles1 mol of iodine is displaced by 1 mol of free chlorine.Cl 2(aq) + 2I-(aq) 2Cl-(aq) + I2 (aq)The free chlorine concentration, in mol dm-3, of the bleach RIN1 mole iodine = 1 mole of free chlorine25cm3 of dilute bleach solution contains 0.00147 moles of chlorineConcentr ation of iodine in 500 cm3 of Robin bleach solution isTherefore the concentration is 0.294 mol/500cm3 of Robin bleach.Therefore the concentration is 0.588mol/dm3.25.0 cm3 of diluted LOCAL brand bleach solution required 11.07 cm3 of Sodium thiosulfate.Moles of sodium thiosulphate=Moles of iodine, I2, were present in the conical flask after the bleach reacted with an excess of iodide ions2S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) S4O62-(aq) + 2I-(aq)Moles of I2 = moles of sodium thiosulphate 2Moles of I2 = 2Moles of I2 = 0.00069 moles1 mol of iodine is displaced by 1 mol of free chlorine.Cl 2(aq) + 2I-(aq) 2Cl-(aq) + I2 (aq)The free chlorine concentration, in mol dm-3, of the bleach RIN1 mole iodine = 1 mole of free chlorine25cm3 of diluted bleach solution contains 0.00069 moles of chlorineConcentration of iodine in 500 cm3 of Local bleach solution isTherefore the concentration is 0.138mol/500cm3 of RIN bleach.Therefore the concentration is 0.276mol/dm3.3.4 analysis and interpretationCalculating the cost -effectivenessBRANDRINROBINLOCALConcentration of free chlorine (mol/dm3)0.680.5880.276Price of 500cm3 bleach in rupees403315Price of 1dm3 bleach (=price of 500cm3-2) in rupees806630Concentration of free chlorine per rupee spent on bleach (=concentration of free chlorine in 1dm3 bleach/price of 1 dm3 bleach)0.00850.00890.0092Matrix 1It can be seen from the experiment 1 higher amounts of bleach is used to remove the stain as we move from RIN to ROBIN to the local brand. And as it can also be seen from the histogram above ( graph 1) that the free chlorine concentration decreases as we move from RIN to ROBIN to the local brand it can be inferred that higher the concentration lesser is the amount of bleach required. How so ever the amount of free chlorine required is nearly the same4. Conclusion4.1 ResultsThe free chlorine concentration per rupee spent is maximum of local brand bleach. Therefore the local bleach is most cost-effective bleach. The local brand bleach over takes other brand ed bleaches like RIN and Robin which are very famous in Indian market. There is a very small difference between each of them when we calculate the concentration of free chlorine per rupee spent. But when we see the concentration of free chlorine in rin and robin they are quite higher then local brand. Local brand has very less moles of sodium hypochlorite per dm3 of the bleach. So the volume required to remove a stain by local brand bleach would be quite large then the volume required of rin or robin brand bleach. This can give a wrong impression that the other brands are better or more efficient at removing stain. But we know that it isnt so. Only if higher amounts of the local brands were used the same stain would take lesser money to be removed. This proves the Indian mentality.Resolved questionsIs the amount of sodium thiosulfate used proportional to the amount of free chlorine atoms-Yes very much. It can be inferred by comparing graph 1 (or matrix 1) and graph 2Does the concent ration of sodium hypochlorite affect the effectiveness of the bleach-Higher the concentration of sodium hypochlorite more is the effectiveness of the bleach. Inferred from graph 1 (or matrix 1) and table 1Checking the Indian mentality-It depends on the amount of bleach used. But it can easily be inferred that the local brand is a lot more cost efficientDeriving the cost effectiveness of different brands of bleachHypothesis 1 and 2 were confirmed to be true via experimentation while the other two hypotheses (namely 3 and 4) are proved to be wrong.EvaluationWeaknessesIt isnt very easy to note down the point of the end of the titration.Accuracy can tend to pose a problemThe distil water can have other salts presentImprovementsColorimetry should be used for knowing the end pointMore accurate burettes can be usedUltra pure water should be used rather than distilled water4.2 ExtensionThe other method should be used.A more number of brands should be used.Other active ingredients should be tried and true for. Biologically active organisms like bacterias should also be considered.The activity of the other active substances should be tested.5. BIBLOGRAPHYhttp//, Simon Q (2006). Ingredients Bleach. Science Toys. http// Retrieved 2006-03-02.http//,253,EX.htmlJournal of pharmaceutic sciences, volume 59, issue 8, pages 1168, Sources Referred pass on Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level May/June 2006 paperhttp// of detergents, Volume 5 By Uri Tsoler, Guy Broze. Pages 621-627

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